- 宋蒙亚12, 李忠佩23, 刘明2, 刘满强1
中国农业科学. 2013, 46(17):
【Objective】 The objective of this study is to explore the effects of single type of organic matter and their combinations with various proportions of different organic materials on soil properties. The results would also provide a scientific basis and practical guidance to optimal utilization of agricultural organic wastes and achieve the aim of optimal configuration and agricultural sustainability regarding to soil quality. 【Method】 In this study, three organic materials were used, including rice straw, peanut straw and pig manure. Based on the mass ratio, the single type of organic matter only, the combination of both (rice straw and peanut straw mixing at the ratio of 7﹕3 and 3﹕7, respectively) and three ones (1﹕1). All single and mixture treatments were amended with 1% organic matters of the soil mass and cultivated for 90 days. Thereafter, soil nutrient and biochemical properties were measured. 【Result】 The results showed that different organic materials had a significant impact on soil nutrients and biochemical characteristics. Overall, mixtures of different organic materials were more effective than only single one for improving soil properties measured. The mixture treatments on soil nutrient availability showed additional effects, i.e. the nutrient release derived from mixtures were more than weighted average values of two and three materials. The additional effects of the mixtures on the activities of urease and invertase were not significant, for example, the increased effects of SZ, SHZ and 3S7H mixtures on invertase were 1.46%, 0.18% and 5.97%, respectively. Carbon mineralization rate of the mixture treatments had significant negative additional effects with the treatments of SH, SZ and 3S7H showed 9.91%, 23.54% and 22.95% lower than the weighted average values, respectively. And the corresponding decreased effects for the CO2-C production rate were 24.56%, 16.47% and 18.18%, respectively. BIOLOG analysis showed that AWCD value and carbon utilization potential of the treatments S and 7S3H were the highest among all treatments. The metabolic quotients (qCO2) in the S and 7S3H treatments were higher than those of other treatments. The materials combination of nutrient release and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen had stronger positive addition. The materials combination of mineralization of organic carbon and qCO2 had stronger negative addition. 【Conclusion】 Results showed that mixing organic materials could improve soil nutrient contents enhance as well as soil biochemical activity. Compared to only one type of organic matter, materials mixture could provide more resources and favorable habitat for soil biological development, leading to acceleration of decomposition and nutrient release and finally improvement of soil fertility.