中国农业科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (2): 262-272.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.02.006

• 植物保护 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄淮海夏玉米主产区茎腐病主要病原菌及优势种分析

刘树森,马红霞,郭宁,石洁(),张海剑,孙华,金戈   

  1. 河北省农林科学院植物保护研究所/农业部华北北部作物有害生物综合治理重点实验室/河北省农业有害生物综合防治工程技术研究中心, 河北保定071000
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-04 接受日期:2018-11-23 出版日期:2019-01-16 发布日期:2019-01-21
  • 通讯作者: 石洁 E-mail:shij99@163.com
  • 作者简介:刘树森,E-mail: shusenliu@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-02)

Analysis of Main Pathogens and Dominant Species of Maize Stalk Rot in the Main Summer Maize Producing reas of Huang-Huai-Hai

LIU ShuSen,MA HongXia,GUO Ning,SHI Jie(),ZHANG HaiJian,SUN Hua,JIN Ge   

  1. Plant Protection Institute, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences/Key Laboratory of IPM on Crops in Northern Region of North China, Ministry of Agriculture/IPM Centre of Hebei Province, Baoding 071000, Hebei
  • Received:2018-09-04 Accepted:2018-11-23 Online:2019-01-16 Published:2019-01-21
  • Contact: Jie SHI E-mail:shij99@163.com

摘要:

【目的】 明确黄淮海夏玉米主产区玉米茎腐病的主要病原菌组成及优势种,为病原菌致病机制、抗性育种及茎腐病防治提供依据。【方法】 于2014—2017年采集黄淮海夏玉米主产区3个省(河北、河南、山东)的玉米茎腐病样本850份。通过形态学、通用引物和特异引物对病组织分离物进行鉴定,并采用上述引物直接检测病组织。整合分析分离物鉴定法和组织分子检测法的结果以确定玉米茎腐病的主要病原菌及优势种;分析主要病原菌在各省间以及同一省份不同年度的检出率,揭示主要病原菌的种群动态变化;分析单个样本中病原菌的检出率,探讨多种病原菌的共存模式。【结果】 有667份样本检测出真菌或卵菌,占总样本的78.47%;年度间样本检出率存在差异,2014年的检出率不足50%,而2015—2017年的检出率相近,均高于90%。在所有样本中共检出20属46种真菌或卵菌,其中镰孢菌(Fusarium spp.)的检出率最高,为89.96%,包括禾谷镰孢复合种(F. graminearum species complex)、层出镰孢(F. proliferatum)、拟轮枝镰孢(F. verticillioides)、厚垣镰孢(F. chlamydosporum)、亚粘团镰孢(F. subglutinans)、尖镰孢(F. oxysporum)、黄色镰孢(F. culmorum)、藤仓镰孢(F. fujikuroi)、变红镰孢(F. incarnatum木贼镰孢(F. equiseti)和茄镰孢(F. solani)11个种;腐霉菌(Pythium spp.)的检出率为34.18%,包括芒孢腐霉(P. aristosporum)、禾生腐霉(P. graminicola)、棘腐霉(P. acanthicum)、孤雌腐霉(P. amasculinum)和寡雄腐霉(P. oligandrum)5个种。拟轮枝镰孢、禾谷镰孢复合种、芒孢腐霉和层出镰孢为4种主要病原菌,检出率依次为62.07%、46.93%、29.09%和28.04%,其中拟轮枝镰孢为优势种。各省之间,上述4种主要病原菌的检出率存在一定差异。拟轮枝镰孢在河北省的检出率为73.98%,明显高于该菌在河南省和山东省的检出率;禾谷镰孢复合种在3个省的检出率相近;层出镰孢和芒孢腐霉在山东省的检出率分别为35.78%和34.31%,均高于在其他两省的检出率。同一省份不同年度上述4种主要病原菌的检出率呈动态变化,其中任何一种病原菌均有可能上升为优势种。进一步分析表明,单个样本中可以检测出一种或多种病原菌,检测出1种菌的样本占38.38%,检出2种和3种病原菌的样本分别占29.24%和19.04%;2种及以上病原菌共存以镰孢菌和腐霉菌、镰孢菌和镰孢菌模式为主。【结论】 黄淮海夏玉米主产区茎腐病主要病原菌为拟轮枝镰孢、禾谷镰孢复合种、芒孢腐霉和层出镰孢,其中拟轮枝镰孢为优势种;拟轮枝镰孢在河北省的检出率最高,层出镰孢和芒孢腐霉在山东省的检出率最高,禾谷镰孢复合种在3个省的检出率相近;单个样本中存在多种病原菌共存的模式。

关键词: 玉米茎腐病, 黄淮海地区, 病原菌检测, 优势种, 镰孢菌, 腐霉菌

Abstract:

【Objective】 The objective of this study is to determine the main pathogens and dominant species of maize stalk rot in the main summer maize producing areas of Huang-Huai-Hai, and to provide a basis for understanding the pathogenic mechanism, resistant breeding, and ultimately maize stalk rot management.【Method】 In 2014-2017, 850 samples of maize stalk rot were collected from three provinces (Hebei, Henan and Shandong) in the main summer maize producing areas of Huang-Huai-Hai. The isolated fungi or oomycetes were morphologically characterized and confirmed by using universal and specific primers, those primers were also used for detecting pathogens in diseased tissues. The combined results of isolate identification and tissue molecular detection were analyzed to determine the main pathogens and the dominant species. The detection rates of main pathogens in different provinces and different years of the same province were analyzed to reveal the population dynamics. The detection rates of pathogens in individual samples were also analyzed to determine the coexistence patterns of multiple pathogens.【Result】 Fungi or oomycetes were detected in 667 samples, accounting for 78.47% of all samples. The detection rates were different among years, less than 50% in 2014 and more than 90% in 2015-2017. Detected fungi or oomycetes were classified to 46 species of 20 genera. Fusarium spp. had the highest detection rate of 89.96%, including F. graminearum species complex, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. chlamydosporum, F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. culmorum, F. fujikuroi, F. incarnatum, F. equiseti and F. solani. In addition, Pythium spp. had the second highest detection rate of 34.18%, including P. aristosporum, P. graminicola, P. acanthicum, P. amasculinum and P. oligandrum. The detection rates of four main pathogens, F. verticillioides, F. graminearum species complex, P. aristosporum and F. proliferatum, were 62.07%, 46.93%, 29.09% and 28.04%, respectively. It indicated that the dominant species was F. verticillioides. There were some differences in the detection rates of the four main pathogens among provinces. The detection rate of F. verticillioides in Hebei Province was 73.98%, which was significantly higher than that in Henan and Shandong Provinces, and the detection rates of F. graminearum species complex in the three provinces were similar. The detection rates of F. proliferatum and P. aristosporum in Shandong Province were 35.78% and 34.31%, respectively, which were higher than those in other two provinces. The detection rates of the four main pathogens from the same province were dynamic in different years, and any one of them can be the dominant species. Furthermore, several pathogens could be detected in a single sample. While 38.38% samples were colonized by only one pathogen, 29.24% and 19.04% samples were colonized by two and three pathogens. The patterns of two or multiple pathogens in single samples were mainly coexistence of Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp., or coexistence of Fusarium spp. and Fusarium spp..【Conclusion】 The main pathogens of maize stalk rot in the main summer maize producing areas of Huang-Huai-Hai are F. verticillioides, F. graminearum species complex, P. aristosporum and F. proliferatum, and the dominant species is F. verticillioides. The detection rate of F. verticillioides in Hebei Province and that of F. proliferatum and P. aristosporum in Shandong Province are the highest, and the detection rate of F. graminearum species complex in the three provinces is similar. There is a coexistence pattern of two or multiple pathogens in a single sample.

Key words: maize stalk rot, Huang-Huai-Hai region, pathogen detection, dominant species, Fusarium spp., Pythium spp.