中国农业科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (2): 215-227.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.02.003

• 耕作栽培·生理生化·农业信息技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

南方稻区优良食味与高产协同的单季晚粳稻品种特点研究

胡蕾,朱盈,徐栋,陈志峰,胡兵强,韩超,裘实,吴培,张洪程(),魏海燕()   

  1. 1扬州大学/江苏省作物遗传生理国家重点实验室培育点/粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/农业部长江流域稻作技术创新中心, 江苏扬州 225009
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-20 接受日期:2018-12-04 出版日期:2019-01-16 发布日期:2019-01-21
  • 通讯作者: 张洪程,魏海燕 E-mail:hczhang@yzu.edu.cn;wei_haiyan@163.com
  • 作者简介:胡蕾,E-mail: 1533710521@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0300503);江苏省重点研发计划(BE2016344);国家水稻产业技术体系(CARS-01-27);江苏高校优势学科建设工程项目(CARS-01-27)

Characteristics of Good Taste and High Yield Type of Single Cropping Late Japonica Rice in Southern China

HU Lei,ZHU Ying,XU Dong,CHEN ZhiFeng,HU BingQiang,HAN Chao,QIU Shi,WU Pei,ZHANG HongCheng(),WEI HaiYan()   

  1. Yangzhou University/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops/Innovation Center of Rice Cultivation Technology in Yangtze Valley, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu
  • Received:2018-08-20 Accepted:2018-12-04 Online:2019-01-16 Published:2019-01-21
  • Contact: HongCheng ZHANG,HaiYan WEI E-mail:hczhang@yzu.edu.cn;wei_haiyan@163.com

摘要:

【目的】 旨在探究南方稻区不同食味值水平和产量类型单季晚粳稻产量与品质的差异,阐明南方稻区优良食味与高产协同的单季晚粳品种所具有的特征特性。【方法】 本文以南方稻区48个单季晚粳为材料,根据产量和食味值将其分为味优高产、味优中产、味中高产和味中中产4种类型,以实际生产需求为依据,选用味优高产、味优中产和味中高产3种类型进行产量和品质的比较研究。【结果】 味优高产类型的食味值比味中高产类型高26.69%,且味优类型食味值中的外观、黏度和平衡度分别比味中类型高出38.81%、36.30%和37.40%。与味中高产类型相比,味优高产类型的糙米率、整精米率与垩白粒率、垩白度分别高0.34%、7.13%、40.39%和47.56%;胶稠度长度长19.92%;直链淀粉、蛋白质含量低37.67%和33.08%。与味优中产类型相比,味优高产类型的每穗粒数、结实率、千粒重、灌浆结实期的日照时数、成穗率以及抽穗至成熟阶段生物积累量占总生物量的比例分别高4.47%、3.29%、5.72%、16.25%、11.09%、21.49%;叶面积衰减率低13.51%。抽穗至成熟阶段,味优高产的群体生长率、净同化率和光合势比味优中产分别高出24.46%、14.62%和19.01%。【结论】 南方优良食味与高产协同的单季晚粳品种的特征为加工品质达国标1级;透明度等级在3级;垩白粒率和垩白度分别在50%—85%与20%—35%;直链淀粉含量、蛋白质含量与胶稠度长度分别在10.0%、8.0%与90.0 mm左右;RVA谱特征值中消减值在-500cP以下,回复值在550 cP—650 cP。产量构成中,味优高产类型品种的结实率在90.0%左右;千粒重在25.0 g以上;且在抽穗前期保持适宜的干物质积累,在抽穗期以后保证叶面积指数、干物质积累量及其所占全生育期的积累比例有较高的水平。

关键词: 南方稻区, 单季晚粳, 优良食味, 高产

Abstract:

【Objective】 The objective of this study was to explore the differences in the yield and quality of the single cropping late japonica rice between different levels of taste value and the types of yield in southern China, and to elucidate the characteristics of good taste and high yield varieties in southern China. 【Method】 48 single cropping late japonica rice varieties were used as materials in the article, and they were divided into four types of good taste and high yield, good taste and medium yield, medium taste and high yield, medium taste and medium yield according to the yield and taste value. In order to reveal the characteristics of single cropping late japonica rice varieties with good taste and high yield in southern China, three types of good taste and high yield, good taste and medium yield, medium taste and high yield were selected for comparative study of yield and quality according to the actual production demands. 【Result】 The comprehensive of the type of good taste and high yield was 26.69% higher than the type of medium taste and high yield. Appearance, viscosity and balance degree indexes in comprehensive were 38.81%, 36.30% and 37.40% higher than the type of medium taste, respectively. The results showed that, the brown rice rate, milled rice rate, head milled rice rate, chalkiness rate and chalkiness degree of the type of good taste and high yield were 0.34%, 6.92%, 7.13%, 40.39% and 47.56% higher than that of the type of good taste and medium yield, respectively. The length of the gel consistency of the type of good taste and high yield was 19.92% longer than the type of medium taste and high yield, while the amylose and protein content of that were 37.67% and 33.08% lower, respectively. Compared with the type of good taste and medium yield, the proportions of the number of grains per panicle, seed setting rate, 1000-grain weight, sunshine duration during the grain filling period, earing rate, grain density, and the bioaccumulation from heading to maturity accounted for the total biomass of the type of good taste and high yield were 4.47%, 3.29%, 5.72%, 16.25%, 11.09%, 15.89% and 21.49% higher, respectively, while the decreasing rate of leaf area was 13.51% lower. In the period from heading to maturity, good taste and high yield type’s crop growth rate, net assimilation rate and photosynthetic potential were 24.46%, 14.62% and 19.01% higher than that of good taste and medium yield type, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Good taste and high yield type of single cropping late japonica rice had the following characteristics: The milling quality had reached the first level of Chinese standard; The transparency level was 3; The chalkiness rate and the chalkiness degree were between 50% to 85%, and 20% to 35%, respectively; The content of amylose and protein were around 10.0% and 8.0%, respectively; The length of gel consistency was over 90 mm; The setback was below -500cP and the consistence was between 550cP and 650cP. The seed setting rate of the good taste and high yield type was about 90.0%, the 1000-grain weight had more than 25.0 g. It was also important to maintain the suitable dry matter accumulation in the early stage of heading period, and to ensure the leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and the proportion of the total growth period with high levels after the heading period.

Key words: southern rice area, single cropping late japonica rice, good taste quality, high yield