中国农业科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (24): 4625-4632.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.24.004

• 耕作栽培·生理生化·农业信息技术 • 上一篇    

长江流域直播油菜密植效应及其机理研究进展

蒯婕1(),王积军2,左青松3,陈红琳4,高建芹5,汪波1,周广生1(),傅廷栋1   

  1. 1 华中农业大学植物科学技术学院/农业部长江中游作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室,武汉 430070
    2 全国农业技术推广服务中心,北京 100026
    3 扬州大学/江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室,江苏扬州 225009
    4 四川省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所,成都 610066
    5 江苏省农业科学院 经济作物研究所,南京 210014
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-26 接受日期:2018-07-25 出版日期:2018-12-26 发布日期:2018-12-28
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31671616);湖北省科技支撑计划(2015BBA190);国家科技支撑项目(2014BAD11B03);国家油菜产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-12);高校自主科技创新基金(2013PY001)

Effects and Mechanism of Higher Plant Density on Directly-Sown Rapeseed in the Yangtze River Basin of China

KUAI Jie1(),WANG JiJun2,ZUO QingSong3,CHEN HongLin4,GAO JianQin5,WANG Bo1,ZHOU GuangSheng1(),FU TingDong1   

  1. 1 College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430070
    2 National Agricultural Technology Extension and Service Centre, Beijing 100026
    3 Yangzhou University/Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu
    4 Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu 610066
    5 Institute of Industrial Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014
  • Received:2018-06-26 Accepted:2018-07-25 Online:2018-12-26 Published:2018-12-28

摘要:

长江流域是我国油菜主产区,面积与总产均约占我国油菜总面积与总产的90%左右。但与发达国家相比,我国长江流域直播油菜长期存在着“密度低、单产低、机械化程度低、肥料用量高、人工成本高”的问题。“三低两高”的现状,导致油菜生产成本高,效益低,农户种植油菜积极性不高,面积与总产长期徘徊,阻碍了该产区油菜生产的发展。近年来,各地生产实践均表明,合理密植是提高我国长江流域直播油菜生产效益,提高农户种植油菜积极性,缩小与发达国家差距的一项核心技术。本文根据相关研究,综述了长江流域直播油菜适当增加种植密度后,油菜的籽粒产量、籽粒品质、茎秆抗倒性、角果抗裂角性、肥料利用效率、光能利用率以及菌核病、杂草发生的变化规律及其机理,提出了直播油菜“以密增产、以密补迟、以密省肥、以密控草、以密适机”的“五密”栽培技术,为建立适宜油菜机械化生产的高产抗倒油菜群体提供了理论依据,同时也为油菜绿色轻简高效生产提供了技术支撑。

关键词: 长江流域, 油菜, 密度, 效应, 机理

Abstract:

The Yangtze River Basin is the main producing area of rapeseed in China, where the rapeseed area and total output accounts for about 90% of those of China. Compared with the developed country, directly-sown rapeseed in the Yangtze River Basin of China had lower density, lower yield, and lower mechanical rate but a higher fertilizer rate and higher labour costs. The high production costs, low economic performance resulted in farmers’ negative attitude toward planting rapeseed, which hindered the development of rapeseed production in this area. In recent years, the production practice all over the place showed that higher plant density was an effective measure to promote plant benefit and narrow the yield gap with the developed country. Based on relevant studies, this article summarized the effects and mechanism of higher plant density on rapeseed yield, seed quality, the resistance of stem lodging and pod shattering, nitrogen and light use efficiency, stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and weed occurrence. Based on this summary, the cultivation techniques that “the higher density can increase yield, compensate for late planting, adequately control weeds, lower nitrogen requirement, increase lodging resistance and facilitate mechanized harvesting” were brought forward, which could provide theoretical basis on establishing rapeseed population with high yield and high lodging resistance, and technical support for simple and efficient production of rapeseed in the Yangtze River Basin of China.

Key words: Yangtze River Basin, rapeseed, plant density, effects, mechanism