中国农业科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (21): 4177-4187.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.21.016

所属专题: 猪瘟与非洲猪瘟

• 专题:猪瘟与非洲猪瘟 • 上一篇    下一篇

非洲猪瘟——我国养猪业的重大威胁

罗玉子(),孙元,王涛,仇华吉()   

  1. 中国农业科学院哈尔滨兽医研究所兽医生物技术国家重点实验室,哈尔滨 150069
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-28 接受日期:2018-09-17 出版日期:2018-11-01 发布日期:2018-11-01
  • 通讯作者: 罗玉子,仇华吉 E-mail:luoyuzi@caas.cn;qiuhuaji@caas.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目“烈性外来动物疫病防控技术研发”(2017YFD0502300)

African Swine Fever: A Major Threat to the Chinese Swine Industry

YuZi LUO(),Yuan SUN,Tao WANG,HuaJi QIU()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150069
  • Received:2018-08-28 Accepted:2018-09-17 Online:2018-11-01 Published:2018-11-01
  • Contact: YuZi LUO,HuaJi QIU E-mail:luoyuzi@caas.cn;qiuhuaji@caas.cn

摘要:

非洲猪瘟(African swine fever, ASF)是由非洲猪瘟病毒(African swine fever virus, ASFV)感染家猪和野猪引起的一种烈性传染病,急性型临床上表现为高热、沉郁、厌食、皮肤发绀、各脏器出血,发病率和病死率可高达100%。世界动物卫生组织(OIE)将其列为法定报告动物疫病,我国将其列为一类动物疫病,是我国重点防范的外来动物疫病之一。ASF在撒哈拉以南的非洲地区、意大利撒丁岛、高加索地区以及俄罗斯和东欧部分国家流行,给疫区国家的养猪业造成巨大的经济损失,并严重冲击畜产品的国际贸易。2018年8月,ASF首次传入我国,随后迅速大范围蔓延,对我国养猪业构成重大威胁,防控形势异常严峻。随着经济全球化发展,ASF呈全球流行态势,持续传入我国的风险极高。鉴于目前无商业化的ASF疫苗,亟需研发可实现现场快速检测的早期诊断技术,做到对疫情早发现、早控制。由于ASFV具有庞大的基因组结构和复杂的免疫逃逸机制,使得研制有效的疫苗十分困难。目前研制的灭活疫苗、亚单位疫苗和核酸疫苗不能提供免疫保护或仅能提供部分保护,而减毒活疫苗和基因缺失疫苗可以诱导完全的同源保护和部分的交叉保护。未来需要深入解析病毒毒力相关基因和免疫保护性相关抗原,并着力研制基因缺失疫苗和弱毒疫苗,解决其安全性、稳定性和免疫效力等难题。本文就ASF的流行病学、诊断技术和疫苗研发等方面的最新研究进展及防控面临的挑战进行综述,并提出防控策略及建议,以期为我国ASF的防控提供参考。

关键词: 非洲猪瘟, 中国, 流行病学, 诊断, 疫苗, 防控策略

Abstract:

African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease of domestic and wild pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), and causes signi?cant economic losses to the pig industry in affected countries. Acute disease is characterized by high fever, hemorrhages in the skin and internal organs, and a high mortality rate up to 100%. The continuous spread of the disease through Africa, Europe and Russian Federation keeps the neighboring countries on heightened alert. In August 2018, ASF emerged in China for the first time and subsequently rapidly spread across many regions of China, posing a major threat to the Chinese pig industry. Considering unavailability of ASF vaccines, rapid and early diagnostic assays are urgently needed for on-site field testing. Developing an effective ASF vaccine continues to be challenging due to incomplete understanding of the virus. Recent attempts on attenuated live vaccines and gene-deleted vaccines have been reported with promising efficacy, which have been demonstrated to provide effective homologous protection and partial heterologous protection. This review summarizes the epidemiology, diagnostics, vaccines and control strategies and challenges of ASF.

Key words: African swine fever, China, epidemiology, diagnostics, vaccine, control strategy