中国农业科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (21): 4076-4086.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.21.007

• 土壤肥料·节水灌溉·农业生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同地力水平下的小麦施肥效应

徐霞1(),赵亚南1,黄玉芳1,闫军营2,叶优良1()   

  1. 1河南农业大学资源与环境学院,郑州450002
    2河南省土壤肥料站,郑州450002
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-03 接受日期:2018-08-10 出版日期:2018-11-01 发布日期:2018-11-01
  • 通讯作者: 徐霞,叶优良 E-mail:xuxia2011@163.com;ylye2004@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31571607)

Fertilization Effect of Wheat Under Different Soil Fertilities

Xia XU1(),YaNan ZHAO1,YuFang HUANG1,JunYing YAN2,YouLiang YE1()   

  1. 1 College of Resources and Environment, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002
    2 Soil and Fertilizer Station of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450002
  • Received:2018-04-03 Accepted:2018-08-10 Online:2018-11-01 Published:2018-11-01
  • Contact: Xia XU,YouLiang YE E-mail:xuxia2011@163.com;ylye2004@163.com

摘要:

【目的】整理2005—2013年在河南省布置的1 247个小麦的“3414”田间试验,分析不同地力水平下小麦施肥后的增产效果、经济效益及氮、磷、钾肥利用效率,明确不同地力水平下河南省小麦施肥效应,为科学施肥提供理论依据。【方法】选取不施肥处理(N0P0K0)、-N处理(N0P2K2)、-P处理(N2P0K2)、-K处理(N2P2K0)和NPK处理(N2P2K2),根据不施肥处理的产量将土壤基础地力划分为<3.0 t·hm -2、3.0—4.5 t·hm -2、4.5—6.0 t·hm -2、>6.0 t·hm -24个等级,研究不同处理不同地力水平下小麦施用氮、磷、钾肥的增产量、增产率、产值、施肥成本、施肥利润和产投比,以及肥料的农学效率、偏生产力、肥料贡献率、地力贡献率。另外,分析不施肥处理及各缺素处理的产量与相应养分肥料贡献率的关系。 【结果】相比不施肥处理,施肥后小麦的产量显著提高,各施肥处理的增产量及增产率随地力水平的提高而下降。其中基础地力<3.0 t·hm -2时氮磷钾配施及增施氮、磷、钾肥的增产率分别为126.07%、75.98%、24.93%、17.73%,基础地力>6.0 t·hm -2时仅为24.35%、15.39%、10.36%、8.70%。在施肥经济效益方面,各施肥处理的产值、施肥成本、施肥利润及产投比均随地力水平的提高而升高,其中小麦产值和施肥利润均以基础地力>6.0 t·hm -2时的氮磷钾配施处理最高,分别为19.64×10 3、18.24×10 3 yuan/hm 2,基础地力<3.0 t·hm -2时的-N处理最低,分别为8.52×10 3、7.87×10 3yuan/hm 2。在肥料利用率方面,农学效率和肥料贡献率总体随地力水平的提高而下降。地力贡献率平均为63.72%,随地力水平的提高而提高,各地力水平从<3.0 t·hm -2到>6.0 t·hm -2的4个等级的地力贡献率平均分别为43.57%、57.80%、70.29%、80.34%。肥料贡献率随相应不施肥处理小麦产量的提高呈对数趋势下降,并且显著相关,说明提高基础地力可减少小麦的对化肥的依赖。 【结论】提高土壤基础地力能够促进小麦增产、增收,降低小麦产量对施用化肥的依赖;河南省小麦生产中应重视培肥土壤,并根据不同地力水平合理施肥以保证小麦高产稳产、提高施肥利润及肥料施用效率。

关键词: 小麦, 地力水平, 施肥, 产量, 经济效益, 肥料利用率, 河南省

Abstract:

【Objective】The data of 1 247 “3414” field experiments, conducted in Henan Province during 2005-2013, were collected in this paper to evaluate effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer application on wheat yields, economic benefits and fertilizer use efficiencies under different soil fertilities, aiming to clarify the response of fertilization effect to different soil fertilities, and to provide reference for reasonable fertilizer application. 【Method】The five treatments, including N0P0K0, N0P2K2, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and N2P2K2, were chosen. According to the wheat grain yield of N0P0K0 treatment, the soil fertilities were classified into four grades: <3.0 t·hm -2, 3.0 to 4·5 t·hm -2, 4.5 to 6.0 t·hm -2, and >6.0 t·hm -2. The yield responses to N, P and K fertilizers, gross income, fertilizer profit, input-output ratio, and the agronomic efficiency (AE), partial factor productivity (PFP), the fertilizer contribution rate (FCR) and contribution rate of soil fertilities were also compared. 【Result】Compared with N0P0K0 treatment, the wheat yields with fertilizer application were increased significantly, and the yield increase and yield increase rate showed a significant downtrend with increasing soil fertilities. The yield increase rate of NPK and N, P, and K fertilizers application were 126.07%, 75.98%, 24.93% and 17.73% under soil fertilities <3.0 t·hm -2, respectively, while which were 24.35%, 15.39%, 10.36% and 8.70% under soil fertilities >6.0 t·hm -2, respectively. The gross income, fertilization cost, fertilizer profit and input-output ratio of all treatments increased with the improvement of the soil fertilities level. The gross income and fertilizer profit of NPK treatment was the highest under the soil fertilities >6.0 t·hm -2, which were 19.64×10 3 yuan/hm 2 and 18.24×10 3 yuan/hm 2, respectively; the gross income and fertilizer profit of -N treatment was the lowest, under the soil fertilities <3.0 t·hm -2, which were 8.52×10 3 yuan/hm 2, 7.87×10 3 yuan/hm 2, respectively. In terms of fertilizer use efficiency, the AE and FCR generally decreased when the soil fertilities improved. The contribution rate of soil fertilities was 63.72% averagely, and increased with the increase of the soil fertilities, the contribution rate of soil fertilities of different soil fertilities (<3.0 t·hm -2, 3.0 to 4.5 t·hm -2, 4.5 to 6.0 t·hm -2, and >6.0 t·hm -2) were 43.57%, 57.80%, 70.29%, and 80.34%, respectively. The FCR of the NPK treatments or N, P and K fertilizers decreased with the increase of wheat yield under the CK treatment or corresponding fertilizer omission treatment, indicating that enhancing soil indigenous fertilities could reduce the yield dependence on chemical fertilizers. 【Conclusions】Improving soil fertilities could increase the yield and income of wheat, reduce the dependence of wheat yield on chemical fertilizer application. Therefore, it was important to improve the soil fertilities, and apply fertilization rationally according to soil fertilities levels to ensure high and stable yield, increase fertilizer profit, and improve the fertilizer use efficiency in wheat production in Henan Province.

Key words: wheat, soil fertilities, fertilization, yield, economic benefit, fertilizer use efficiency, Henan Province