中国农业科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (21): 4020-4029.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.21.002

• 作物遗传育种·种质资源·分子遗传学 • 上一篇    下一篇

历年国审玉米品种产量和品质性状变化趋势分析

陈先敏1(),梁效贵1,赵雪1,高震1,吴巩1,申思1,林珊1,周丽丽1,周顺利1,2()   

  1. 1中国农业大学农学院,北京 100193
    2农业农村部作物高效用水吴桥科学观测实验站,河北吴桥 061802
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-11 接受日期:2018-07-16 出版日期:2018-11-01 发布日期:2018-11-01
  • 通讯作者: 陈先敏,周顺利 E-mail:17801238825@163.com;zhoushl@cau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    粮食丰产增效科技创新重点专项(2016YFD0300301);国家玉米产业技术体系(CARS-02-13)

Analysis on the Trends of Yield and Quality Related Traits for Maize Hybrids Released in China over the Past Years

XianMin CHEN1(),XiaoGui LIANG1,Xue ZHAO1,Zhen GAO1,Gong WU1,Si SHEN1,Shan LIN1,LiLi ZHOU1,ShunLi ZHOU1,2()   

  1. 1 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193
    2 Scientific Observation and Experimental Station of Wuqiao for Crops with High Water Use Efficiency, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuqiao 061802, Hebei
  • Received:2018-05-11 Accepted:2018-07-16 Online:2018-11-01 Published:2018-11-01
  • Contact: XianMin CHEN,ShunLi ZHOU E-mail:17801238825@163.com;zhoushl@cau.edu.cn

摘要:

【目的】通过分析中国不同年代玉米品种产量和品质性状的变化趋势,探索不同性状之间的关联性,为进一步认识品种更替对玉米品种产量和品质性状的影响及未来发展方向奠定基础。【方法】搜集整理1992—2017年共计770个品次的国家审定玉米品种信息,对其中占比73.64%的普通玉米品种的千粒重、容重以及品质相关性状进行分析。【结果】随年份更替,容重、千粒重和粗淀粉的含量均呈显著或极显著升高趋势,年均升高量分别为1.87 g·L -1、0.91 g和0.19%;粗脂肪含量每年以0.03%呈极显著下降趋势;粗蛋白和赖氨酸含量年平均值则基本保持稳定,多年平均值分别为9.88%和0.30%。各性状间的相关性分析结果表明,容重和千粒重均与粗淀粉含量呈极显著正相关关系,但二者均与粗脂肪含量存在不同程度的负相关关系,粗蛋白和赖氨酸均与粗淀粉和千粒重存在极显著负相关关系。以每1 000粒籽粒为单位计算各物质积累量发现,随年份更替,单位千粒籽粒中的粗淀粉仍表现为极显著升高,但与物质含量趋势不同的是,单位千粒的粗蛋白和赖氨酸的积累量均出现不同程度的提升趋势,粗淀粉、粗蛋白和赖氨酸年均升高量分别为1.159、0.092和0.001 g;粗脂肪积累量仍随年份更替呈显著下降趋势。【结论】品种更替过程中,千粒重和容重等产量性状是中国玉米品种改良相对较快的性状,而千粒重和容重的升高主要依赖于粗淀粉含量的迅速提升;粗淀粉含量较为快速的提高可能对粗蛋白、赖氨酸和粗脂肪含量造成了“碳稀释效应”,而千粒重的改良导致了其积累量与浓度的变化趋势存在差异。同时,宜机收玉米品种的选育和推广对品质性状造成的可能影响值得进一步关注。

关键词: 玉米, 国家审定, 品种, 产量, 品质, 碳稀释效应

Abstract:

【Objective】Simultaneous improvement in yield and quality of maize hybrids is vital to improve maize variety and develop the maize industry. Amounts of studies focused on the trends of crude starch and crude protein concentrations with maize varieties released in different eras, however, the results are different and the relationships between different substances were rarely mentioned. Hence, further exploration of the changing trends of yield and quality related traits for maize hybrids released in China over the past years and their intrinsic connections are needed. 【Method】The information of 770 maize varieties released in China from 1992 to 2017 were collected, and the related traits of yield and quality of the 73.64% common maize hybrids were used for further analysis. 【Result】The results showed that the volume weight, 1000-kernel weight and crude starch concentration were significantly or highly significantly increased with an average annual improvements of 1.87 g·L -1, 0.91 g, and 0.19%, respectively. To the contrast, the crude fat concentration was significantly reduced by 0.03% per year. The annual average of crude protein and lysine concentration remained stable along with time, the averages from 1992 to 2017 were 9.88% and 0.30%, respectively. Correlation analysis was processed and both volume weight and 1000-kernel weight were significantly positively correlated with crude starch concentration, however, they were negatively related to the crude fat concentration to some extent. In addition, both of the crude protein and lysine concentration showed extremely significant negative relationships with the crude starch concentration and 1000-kernel weight. The accumulation trends based on 1000-kernel weight showed that crude starch, crude protein and lysine per 1000-kernel increased to some extent over the released years. The average annual increase for each trait was 1.159 g, 0.092 g and 0.001 g, respectively. Crude fat accumulation still decreased which is similar to its concentration. 【Conclusion】Overall, during the process of maize varieties improvement, the traits related to yield such as 1000-kernel weight and bulk weight are relatively fast improved in China, and the advance of them rely on, to a great extent, the enhancement of the crude starch concentration, however, which may lead to an effect of carbon dilution on the concentrations of crude protein, lysine and crude fat. The carbon dilution effects and the relatively fast improvement in 1000-kernel weight determined the different performances between concentrations and accumulations for crude protein and lysine. Besides, the relationships between the traits of suitable mechanical grain-harvesting and grain quality deserve further attention during the selection of suitable mechanical grain-harvesting variety.

Key words: maize, national certification, variety, yield, quality, carbon dilution effect