中国农业科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (20): 3827-3839.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.002

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

一次性施肥在我国主要粮食作物中的应用与环境效应

刘兆辉(), 吴小宾, 谭德水, 李彦, 江丽华   

  1. 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所/农业部黄淮海平原农业环境重点实验室/山东省植物营养与肥料重点实验室,济南 250100
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-23 接受日期:2018-08-17 出版日期:2018-10-16 发布日期:2018-10-16
  • 作者简介:

    联系方式:刘兆辉,Tel:0531-66659546;E-mail:liuzhaohui6666@sina.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0201700、2018YFD0200603)、国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201303103)、山东省重点研发计划(重大关键技术)(2016ZDJS08A02)、国家小麦产业技术体系岗位科学家项目(CARS-03)、山东省农业科学院青年英才培养计划、山东省博士后创新项目专项基金(201703051)

Application and Environmental Effects of One-off Fertilization Technique in Major Cereal Crops in China

ZhaoHui LIU(), XiaoBin WU, DeShui TAN, Yan LI, LiHua JIANG   

  1. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, Ministry of Agriculture / Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Jinan 250100
  • Received:2018-01-23 Accepted:2018-08-17 Online:2018-10-16 Published:2018-10-16

摘要:

当前我国粮食生产面临过量施肥、氮肥利用率低和农业劳动力短缺等问题,探讨主要粮食作物一次性施肥技术及其对作物产量、肥料利用效率以及环境效应的影响,为我国粮食生产的简化施肥提供技术支撑。本论文系统分析了一次性施肥技术的发展现状及其在三大粮食作物上的应用效果,针对一次性施肥技术存在的不足,提出其在我国三大粮食作物主产区的推广应用前景和发展方向。一次性施肥是一种生产轻便、节本增效和保护环境的技术模式。当前农业生产中,通过一次性基施缓控释肥、氮肥减量施用技术以及化学调控技术均可以实现三大粮食作物的一次性施肥。与农民传统施肥方式相比,一次性基施缓控释肥可以显著提高玉米、小麦和水稻三大粮食作物的产量和氮肥利用率,产量、氮肥利用率分别提高3.1%—31.7%、6.2%—86.6%;显著减少农田氨挥发、氧化亚氮排放、氮素淋溶和径流损失,分别减少18.1%—81.3%、22.4%—73.4%、0—53.0%和0—43.2%。氮肥减量施用技术可在减少20%—37%氮肥施用量的条件下,维持玉米、小麦和水稻的产量不降低,提高三大粮食作物氮肥利用率2.3%—20.4%,以及降低氮素的损失。添加硝化抑制剂可使三大粮食作物产量、氮肥利用率分别提高6.5%—20.1%、5.0%—78.3%,使氧化亚氮排放显著降低22.1%—51.0%;添加脲酶抑制剂显著提高三大粮食作物产量5.8%—22.8%,显著提高玉米、小麦氮肥利用率25.4%—40.7%,同时显著降低三大作物氨挥发、氧化亚氮排放46.1%—51.2%、11.9%—45.2%。在全国主要粮食主产区的应用结果表明,一次性施肥技术既实现了作物稳产高产、氮肥高效和氮损失减少,又节省了农业劳动力和降低了农业生产成本。因而,一次性施肥技术协同实现了作物高产、养分高效和环境友好的农业可持续发展道路,同时解决了我国当前农业生产劳动力不足的难题,是适宜在全国粮食主产区全面推广和应用的新技术。

关键词: 一次性施肥技术, 玉米, 小麦, 水稻, 产量, 肥料利用率, 环境效应

Abstract:

There are a lot of problems related to nitrogen excessive application, low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and lack of agricultural labor force in the current crop production in China. The objective of this paper was to investigate one-off fertilization technique for the major cereal crops (maize, wheat and rice) and its effects on yield, NUE and environmental effect, so as to provide a technical support for simplified fertilization management in our grain production. This study analyzed the research status and application effects of one-off fertilization on three major cereal crops based on the literatures. Finally, this study proposed the application prospect and the development direction of one-off fertilization technique according to the existing questions in the three major cereal crop productions. One-off fertilization technique is a portable, cost-saving and benefit- increasing, and environmental protection technical pattern in the crop production. In the current agricultural production, one-off fertilization technique of three major cereal crops can be realized through one-off application of slow/controlled release fertilizer, optimizing N rate and chemical control techniques. Compared with the conventional fertilizing methods, one-off application of slow/controlled release fertilizer could significantly increase yield and NUE of maize, wheat and rice. The yield and NUE of the major cereal crops were significantly increased by 3.1%-31.7% and 6.2%-86.6%, respectively. The loss of ammonia volatilization, nitrous oxide emissions, N leaching and run-off were significantly reduced by 18.1%-81.3%, 22.4%-73.4%, 0-53.0% and 0-43.2%, respectively. Under the condition of an average reduction of 20%-37% application, the optimizing N rate technology could still maintain the yield of maize, wheat and rice without reducing, and improved NUE of the three major cereal crops by 2.3%-20.4%, and reduced various N losses. Adding nitrification inhibitors could increase grain yield and NUE by 6.5%-20.1% and 5.0%-78.3%, respectively, and significantly reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 22.1%-51.0%. The addition of urease inhibitors could increase grain yield of maize, wheat and rice by 5.8%-22.8%, promote NUE of maize and wheat by 25.4%-40.7%, and reduce the ammonia volatilization and nitrous oxide emissions of three major cereal crops by 46.1%-51.2% and 11.9%-45.2%, respectively. The application results in the main grain producing areas of China showed that the one-off fertilization technique not only realized the stable yield of the major cereal crops, the high efficiency of N fertilizer and the reduction of N loss, but also saved the agricultural labor force and reduced the agricultural production cost. Therefore, one-off fertilization technique achieved high yield, high NUE and environment-friendly simultaneously, and solved the problems of agricultural labor shortage in the current crop production. One-off fertilization technique is a new technique suitable for comprehensive popularization and application across the country.

Key words: one-off fertilization technique, maize, wheat, rice, yield, nitrogen use efficiency, environmental effect

图1

我国三大粮食作物的总播种面积及总产量"

图2

三大粮食作物一次性施肥技术"

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