中国农业科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (10): 1845-1854.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.10.004

所属专题: 机械粒收推动玉米生产方式转型

• • 上一篇    下一篇

玉米生长后期倒伏研究进展

薛军1(), 王克如1, 谢瑞芝1, 勾玲2, 张旺锋2, 明博1, 侯鹏1, 李少昆1()   

  1. 1中国农业科学院作物科学研究所/农业部作物生理生态重点实验室,北京100081
    2石河子大学农学院/新疆生产建设兵团绿洲生态农业 重点实验室,新疆石河子 832003
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-07 接受日期:2018-01-17 出版日期:2018-09-05 发布日期:2018-05-16
  • 作者简介:

    联系方式:薛军,E-mail:xuejun5519@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0300110)、国家自然科学基金(31371575)、中国农业科学院农业科技创新工程、国家玉米产业技术体系项目(CARS-02-25)

Research Progress of Maize Lodging During Late Stage

Jun XUE1(), KeRu WANG1, RuiZhi XIE1, Ling GOU2, WangFeng ZHANG2, Bo MING1, Peng HOU1, ShaoKun LI2()   

  1. 1Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081
    2College of Agronomy, Shihezi University/Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-agriculture, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Shihezi 832000, Xinjiang
  • Received:2017-11-07 Accepted:2018-01-17 Online:2018-09-05 Published:2018-05-16

摘要:

倒伏是玉米生产中普遍存在的问题。传统生产中玉米一般在生理成熟期收获,前人关于倒伏研究也多集中在生育前期茎秆发育过程或者是生理成熟前的某一阶段,而对生理成熟后倒伏研究较少。玉米机械粒收一般在生理成熟后2—4周进行,倒伏将会增加机械粒收过程中的产量损失,降低籽粒品质,使收获难度加大,收获效率以及玉米种植效益明显降低,成为制约玉米种植密度进一步提高和机械粒收技术发展的重要因素。对此,本文从玉米生育后期植株的衰老生理及其影响因素角度进行综述,提出增强玉米后期抗倒伏能力的措施与建议。分析表明,玉米生育后期植株自然衰老将导致叶片、茎秆和根系活力下降,使茎秆含水量、可溶性糖、半纤维素及总结构性碳水化合物含量均降低,细胞壁变薄、细胞间缝隙变大;同时,茎秆和根系PAL、POD和PPO酶活性下降,抗病能力减弱;茎腐病病原菌产生的细胞壁降解酶分解细胞壁中的纤维素,降解寄主细胞,孢子迅速萌发形成菌丝并进入表皮细胞、皮层和维管束组织,加速茎秆组织失水干缩过程,植株空心变软甚至腐烂,茎秆质量下降。而基于密植高产机械粒收技术需求的增密种植、田间站秆籽粒脱水会加速并延长玉米衰老进程,使茎秆质量和抗病能力进一步下降,导致生理成熟后的倒伏风险加大。为有效控制倒伏、加速我国玉米密植高产机械粒收技术的推广,建议:(1)增强玉米生育后期茎秆衰老和倒伏的理论研究;(2)加强玉米抗倒种质创制,选育早熟、耐密植、籽粒脱水快、抗逆性强、适宜机械粒收的品种;(3)通过构建优质土壤耕层,集成宜机收品种、合理密植、肥水科学运筹、化学调控和病虫害综合防控等关键技术,创制高质量健康群体,提高生育后期茎秆的抗倒伏能力;(4)根据各地气候、生态条件,因地制宜制定降低玉米生育后期倒伏风险的应对措施。

Abstract:

Lodging is a common problem during maize production. Maize harvested at physiological maturity stage in traditional maize production. Previous researches about maize lodging also focused on stalk development process and some stage before the physiological maturation. There was less lodging research after physiological maturity. Mechanical grain harvest usually was carried out two to four weeks after the physiological maturity. Lodging made mechanical grain harvest become difficulty and increased harvest costs, and it also increased grain losses and decreased the grain quality. Maize lodging was a limiting factor in application of mechanical grain harvest technology. This paper reviewed the physiological changes in the maize senescence process and the influences factors on maize lodging, and proposed the measures and suggestions about improving maize lodging resistance during mid and late stage. Analysis showed that, natural senescence of maize from physiological maturity to harvest decreased activity of leaves, stalk and root, and made all of stalk moisture, water-soluble carbohydrate content, hemicellulose content and total structural carbohydrate content decline. These resulted in cell wall thinning, cell gap widening, and stalk strength and disease resistance decrease. The enzymatic activity of PAL, POD and PPO was low, which made the disease resistance decline. The stalk rot pathogen produced cell wall degrading enzymes to decompose cellulose and collapse the cells in stalk. The fungal hyphae flew through the plasma membrane and entered into epidermis cell, cortex and vascular bundle tissue. The stalk rot then increased the speed of stalk dehydration and drying shrinkage, and degraded the pith tissue. Maize stalk became hollow, softening and rot. This decreased stalk quality. Higher grain and full mechanization technologies required high population and delayed harvest to grain dehydration in the field. These accelerated and extension the aging process of maize, further decreased the stalk quality and disease resistance, and increased the lodging risk of maize after physiological maturity. In order to resolve the lodging problem and to accelerate development and promotion of maize mechanical grain harvest technology in China, we suggested that: (1) Theoretical research of maize lodging during late stage should be strengthened; (2) Germplasm creation should be strengthened to breed new maize cultivars with early-maturity, density-tolerant, high rate of grain dehydration, and strong stress resistance; (3) Common methods should be developed to obtain high-quality maize populations and reduce lodging during late stage including constructing a high-quality plow layer, suitable cultivars for grain mechanical harvest, rational close planting, scientific irrigation and fertilization, application of plant growth regulators, and insect-disease prevention; (4) Integration countermeasures should also be established according to ecological conditions in different maize regions.

图1

玉米茎秆茎腐病对细胞壁降解的影响[21]"

图2

生育后期玉米衰老和茎腐病对茎秆机械强度及倒伏的影响"

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