中国农业科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (12): 2390-2400.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.12.012

• 土壤肥料·节水灌溉·农业生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

根层调控措施对甜玉米-黄瓜设施蔬菜轮作体系土壤硝态氮的影响

郝晓然1,彭亚静1,张丽娟1,王琳1,巨晓棠2,吉艳芝1,任翠莲1   

  1. 1河北农业大学资源与环境学院/河北省农田生态环境重点实验室/河北农业大学邸宏杰土壤与环境实验室,河北保定 071000
    2中国农业大学资源与环境学院,北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-21 出版日期:2015-06-16 发布日期:2015-06-16
  • 通讯作者: 吉艳芝,Tel:0312-7528229;E-mail:jiyanzhi@hebau.edu.cn E-mail:jiyanzhi@hebau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:郝晓然,E-mail:haoxiaoran1017@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    河北省蔬菜体系(1004013)

Effect of Root Layer Regulations on Soil Nitrate of the Rotation System of Sweet Corn-Cucumber in Greenhouse Vegetable Production System

HAO Xiao-ran1, PENG Ya-jing1, ZHANG Li-juan1, WANG Lin1, JU Xiao-tang2, JI Yan-zhi1, REN Cui-lian1   

  1. 1College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei /Key Laboratory for Farmland Eco-Environment of Hebei Province/Dihongjie Laboratory of Soil-Environment, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071000, Hebei
    2College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193
  • Received:2014-09-21 Online:2015-06-16 Published:2015-06-16

摘要: 【目的】以甜玉米作为填闲作物,探讨不同的根层调控措施对消减土壤剖面累积硝态氮及下茬黄瓜生长的影响。【方法】在华北平原传统棚室蔬菜的休闲季种植甜玉米,针对甜玉米设置添加土壤调理剂和秸秆还田2种根层调控措施,以甜玉米传统种植作为对照,进行田间小区试验。试验于2008年5月至2011年5月进行,共3次甜玉米-黄瓜轮作,6季作物。每年6月初至9月底种植甜玉米,10月初至次年1月底扣棚育黄瓜苗,当年2月初种植黄瓜。在甜玉米季,共3个处理,随机排列,重复3次。小区面积为4 m×2 m,小区间隔0.3 m,区组之间布设1 m的保护行。【结果】甜玉米种植季,调理剂处理的玉米籽粒产量最高,2008、2009和2010年的产量分别为6.2、7.4和7.9 t·hm-2;土壤调理剂和秸秆还田2种根层调控处理的甜玉米总吸氮量高于传统种植。秸秆还田和调理剂处理能够促进20—60 cm土层根系的生长发育,促使根系吸收更深层的土壤养分。2种根层调控措施均能降低土壤剖面NO3--N的累积,尤其对100—200 cm的作物根区NO3--N的消减能力更强,NO3--N消减趋势大致为:调理剂>秸秆还田>传统种植。3季黄瓜种植季,不同前茬处理的黄瓜产量、生物量和吸氮量差异均不显著;3季平均土壤NO3--N在0—200 cm土层的残留量为秸秆还田<调理剂<传统种植。3个轮作季后,传统种植、调理剂和秸秆还田处理在0—200 cm土层的氮素盈余量分别为1 911.6、1 966.3和1 930.2 kg·hm-2,调理剂处理显著高于传统种植。【结论】在硝态氮高累积的设施土壤上,随着种植年限的增加,加入土壤调理剂和适当的秸秆还田对100—200 cm的作物根区土壤剖面NO3--N的消减能力更强。填闲作物种植第二年对下茬黄瓜土壤NO3--N的消减作用最为明显。土壤调理剂和秸秆还田措施能够显著提高甜玉米对土壤剖面NO3--N的消减能力,减缓土壤NO3--N 的淋失,提高经济效益。

关键词: 根层调控, 设施蔬菜, 甜玉米-黄瓜轮作, NO3--N累积

Abstract: 【Objective】 Taking sweet corn as a catch crop, the accumulation of nitrate in soil profile under different root layer regulation and control measures and their influence on growth of succession cucumber were studied. 【Method】 Sweet corn was planted in the fallow season of the traditional greenhouse in the North China Plain. Using traditional cultivation as the control, a field plot experiment was conducted with 2 root layer regulation and control measures: adding soil conditioner and straw returning to field. The experiment was carried out from May 2008 to May 2011, a total of three sweet corn-cucumber crop rotation, six crops were planted. Sweet corn was planted from early June to September every year, and cucumber seedlings were reared from the early October to the end of January next year. Cucumber plants were planted in early February the same year. In the sweet corn season, three treatments were conducted and arranged at random with three replications. The plot size was about 4 m×2 m, plot interval was 0.3 m, and 1 m of guard rows were laid out between plots. 【Result】In the sweet corn planting seasons, the highest grain yields were obtained in soil conditioner treatment and the yields were 6.2, 7.4 and 7.9 t·hm-2 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. The total N uptake rate in soil conditioners and straw returning to field treatments was higher than the traditional planting. After planting sweet corn for three seasons, straw and soil conditioner treatments promoted the growth and development of root system in 20-60 cm soil layer and enhanced root to absorb nutrients from deeper soil. Both the two treatments reduced the NO3--N of soil profile, especially the subtraction of NO3--N in 100-200 cm of the crop root zone, the NO3--N subtractive trend roughly was soil conditioner>straw returning of field>the traditional planting. After cucumber harvest in three seasons, the differences in cucumber yield, the biomass and nitrogen uptake were not significant, the average soil NO3--N residue of three seasons in 0-200 cm was in the order of straw returning of field<soil conditioner<the traditional planting. After three cropping seasons, the nitrogen surplus in 0-200 cm soil layer in the traditional planting, soil conditioner and straw returning to field treatments was, respectively, 1 911.6, 1 966.83, and 1 930.2 kg·hm-2, and conditioning treatment was significantly higher than that of traditional planting. 【Conclusion】In the greenhouse soil with high nitrate accumulation, along with the increasing length of planting, adding soil conditioner to soil and appropriate straw returning to field, the subtraction of NO3--N in 100-200 cm of the crop root zone was more than traditional planting. Planting catch crops significantly decreased the effects of soil NO3--N in soil of the succession cucumber. Soil conditioners and straw returning to field can significantly improve the ability of sweet corn to decrease soil NO3--N, slow soil NO3--N leaching, and improve economic returns.

Key words: root layer regulation, greenhouse vegetables, the rotation system of sweet corn and cucumber, NO3--N accumulation

[1]    李崇光, 包玉泽. 我国蔬菜产业发展面临的新问题与对策. 中国蔬菜, 2010(15): 1-5.
Li C G , Bao Y Z.Vegetable industry development in our country faces new problems and countermeasures. Chinese Vegetables, 2010(15): 1-15. (in Chinese)
[2]    何飞飞. 设施番茄生产体系的氮素优化管理及其环境效应研究[D]. 北京: 中国农业大学, 2006.
He F F. Nitrogen utilization managment and environmental effects research facilities tomato production system optimization[D]. Beijing: China Agricultural University, 2006. (in Chinese)
[3]    叶灵, 巨哓棠, 刘楠, 张丽娟, 袁丽金, 刘文菊, 刘树庆. 华北平原不同农田类型土壤硝态氮累积及对地下水的影响. 水土保持学报, 2010, 24(2): 165-168.
Ye L, Ju X T, Liu N, Zhang L J, Yuan L J, Liu W J, Liu S Q. Characteristics of nitrate accumulation and its effects on groundwater under typical cropping systems in North China plain. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2010, 24(2): 165-168. (in Chinese)
[4]    Zhu J H, Li X L, Christie P, Li J L. Environmental implications of low nitrogen use efficiency in excessively fertilized hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) cropping systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2005, 111: 70-80.
[5]    Noordwijk M V, Lawson G, Soumare A. Root distribution of trees and crops: competition and/or complementarily//Ong C K, Huxley P. Tree-Crop Interactions. CAB International. UK, Waallingford, 1996: 319-364.
[6]    Rowe E C, Hairiah K, Giller K E, Van Noordwijk M, Cadisch G. Testing the safety-net role of hedgerow tree roots by 15N placement at different soil depths. Agroforestry Systems, 1999,43: 81-93.
[7]    任智慧, 李花粉, 陈清, 李晓林. 甜玉米填闲减缓菜田土壤硝酸盐淋溶的研究. 农业工程学报, 2006, 22(9): 245-249.
Ren Z H, Li H F, Chen Q. Soil nitrogen up take by sweet corn to reduce nitrogen leaching in the vegetable field. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agticultural Engineering, 2006, 22(9): 245-249. (in Chinese)
[8]    Vos J, van der Putten P E L, Hussein M H, van Dam A M, Leffelaar P A. Leffelaar. Field observations on nitrogen catch crops. II. Root length and root length distribution in relation to species and nitrogen supply. Plant and Soil, 1998, 201: 149-155.
[9]    习斌, 张继宗, 翟丽梅, 刘宏斌. 甜玉米作为填闲作物对北方设施菜地土壤环境及下茬作物的影响. 农业环境科学学报, 2011, 30(1): 113-119.
Xi B, Zhang J Z, Zhai L M. Effect of sweet maize as catch crop on soil Environment and following vegetable in Greenhouse of Northern China. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 2011, 30(1): 113-119. (in Chinese)
[10]   吉艳芝, 刘辰琛, 巨笑棠, 张丽娟, 冯万忠, 刘树庆. 根层调控对填闲作物消减设施蔬菜土壤累积硝态氮的影响. 中国农业科学, 2010, 43(24): 5063-5072.
Ji Y Z, Liu C C, JU X T, Zhang L J, Feng W Z, LIU S Q. Effects of layer regulation on reducing soil nitrate accumulation by catch crop in greenhouse vegetable production system. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Master Dissertation, 2010, 43(24): 5063-5072. (in Chinese)
[11]   张继宗, 刘培财, 左强, 邹国元, 刘宏斌. 北方设施菜地夏季不同填闲作物的吸氮效果比较研究. 农业环境科学学报, 2009, 28(12): 2663-2667.
Zhang J Z, Liu P C, Zuo Q, Zou G Y, Liu H B. Nitrogen up take by different catch crops in facility vegetable field. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 2009, 28(12): 2663-2667. (in Chinese)
[12]   李俊良, 张经纬, 王丽英, 金圣爱, 陈清. 根层调控对设施番茄生长及氮素利用的影响. 中国蔬菜, 2011, (22/24): 31-37.
Li J L, Zhang J W, Wang L Y, Jing S A, Chen Q. Effects of integrated rootzone management on greenhouse tomato growth and nitrogen utilization. China Vegetables, 2011(22/24): 31-37. (in Chinese)
[13]   杨振超, 陈双臣, 邹志荣. 土壤调理剂对温室西葫芦产量和品质的影响[J]. 中国农学通报, 2005, 21(2): 164-166.
Yang Z C, Chen S C, Zou Z R. Effect of soil power on the yield and quality of squash in greenhouse. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 2005, 21(2): 164-166. (in Chinese)
[14]   李勇, 曹红娣, 邓九胜, 朱荣松, 白洁瑞, 周航. 小麦秸秆全量还田对土壤速效氮及水稻产量的影响. 生态与农村环境学报, 2009, 25(4): 46-51.
Li Y, Cao H D, Deng J S, Zhu R S, Bai J R, Zhou H. Effect of return of total wheat straw on soil mineral nitrogen dynarn ice and rice yield. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment, 2009, 25(4): 46-51. (in Chinese)
[15]   蒋向. 玉米秸秆还田对土壤理化性状与小麦根系发育和功能的影响[D]. 郑州: 河南农业大学, 2012.
Ji X. Effects of returning maise stalks into field on soil physical and chemical properties and root and development function in wheat[D]. Zhengzhou: Henan Agricultural University, 2012. (in Chinese)
[16]   候彦林, 李红英, 周永娟, 赵慧明. 中国农田氮面源污染研究: Ⅱ污染评价指标体系的初步制定. 农业环境科学学报, 2008, 27(4): 1277-1282.
Hou Y L, Li H Y, Zhou Y J, Zhao H M. Nitrogen non-point field pollution in China: Ⅱ establishment of index system for evaluation of pollution degree. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 2008, 27(4): 1277-1282. (in Chinese)
[17]   陈之群. 土壤调理剂对土壤理化性质及蔬菜生理生化的影响[D]. 郑州: 河南农业大学, 2006.
Chen Z Q. Influence of soil conditioner on physical and chemical characteristics of soil and physiology and biochemistry of vegetables[D]. Zhengzhou: Henan Agricultural University, 2006. (in Chinese)
[18]   Stenberg M, Aronsson H, Linden B, Rydberg T. Soil mineral nitrogen and nitrate leaching losses in soil tillage systems combined with a catch crop. Soil and Tillage Research, 1999, 50(2): 115-125.
[19]   王小彬, 蔡典雄, 张树勤. 土壤调理剂对旱盐条件下草种萌发的影响. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2003, 9(4): 462 -466.
Wang X B, Cai D Y, Zhang S Q. Effects of some water retention materials as soil conditioners on improving grass seedling emergence under dry and saline soil conditions. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, 2003, 9(4): 462-466. (in Chinese)
[20]   Sattelmacher B, Klotz F, Marschner H. Influence of the nitrogen level on root growth and morphology of two potato varieties differing in nitrogen acquisition. Plant and Soil, 1990, 123(2): 131-137.
[21]   Horup-Kristensen K, Nielsen N E. Modelling and measuring the effect of nitrogen catch crops on nitrogen supply for succeeding crops. Plant and Soil, 1998, 203: 79-89.
[22]   员学锋, 汪有科, 吴普特, 冯浩. 聚丙烯酰胺减少土壤养分的淋溶损失研究. 农业环境科学学报, 2005, 24(5): 929-934.
Yuan X F, Wang Y K, Wu P T, Feng H. Effects of polyacrylamide application on the decrease of soil fertilizer and its mechanism. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 2005, 24(5): 929-934. (in Chinese)
[23]   陈少坤, 孟庆瑞, 李颜慧, 梁隐泉, 张晓曼, 王连芳. 土壤调理剂对杏园土壤性状及根系分布的影响. 果树学报, 2008, 25(6): 832-836.
Chen S K, Meng Q R, Li Y H, Liang Y Q, Zhang X M, Wang L F. Effects of soil conditioner on soil properties and root distribution of apricot orchard. Journal of Fruit Science, 2008, 25(6): 832-836. (in Chinese)
[24]   郭振升, 崔保伟, 张慎举, 田伟. 土壤调理剂在豫东平原黄潮土区冬小麦上的应用效果研究. 河南农业科学, 2013, 42(7): 10-13.
Guo Z S, Cui B W, Zhang S J, Tian W. Application effect of conditioner on winter wheat in yellow moist soil of eastern Henan Plain. Jonrnal of Henan Agricultural Sciences, 2013, 42(7): 10-13. (in Chinese)
[1] 徐笠,陆安祥,田晓琴,何洪巨,殷敬伟. 典型设施蔬菜基地重金属的累积特征及风险评估[J]. 中国农业科学, 2017, 50(21): 4149-4158.
[2] 彭亚静,郝晓然,吉艳芝,王琳,任翠莲,巨晓棠,张丽娟. 填闲种植对棚室菜田累积氮素消减及黄瓜生长的影响[J]. 中国农业科学, 2015, 48(9): 1774-1784.
[3] 张帆,李姝,肖达,赵静,王然,郭晓军,王甦. 中国设施蔬菜害虫天敌昆虫应用研究进展[J]. 中国农业科学, 2015, 48(17): 3463-3476.
[4] 彭亚静,汪新颖,张丽娟,郝晓然,乔继杰,王玮,吉艳芝. 根层调控对小麦-玉米种植体系氮素利用及土壤硝态氮残留的影响[J]. 中国农业科学, 2015, 48(11): 2187-2198.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
No Suggested Reading articles found!