中国农业科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (12): 2379-2389.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.12.011

• 土壤肥料·节水灌溉·农业生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同生长阶段水分胁迫对旱区冬小麦生长发育和产量的影响

姚宁1, 2,宋利兵1, 2,刘健1, 2,冯浩1, 2, 3,吴淑芳1, 2,何建强1, 2   

  1. 1 西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院,陕西杨凌 712100 
    2 西北农林科技大学中国旱区节水农业研究院,陕西杨凌 712100 
    3 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,陕西杨凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-12 出版日期:2015-06-16 发布日期:2015-06-16
  • 通讯作者: 何建强,E-mail:jianqiang_he@nwsuaf.edu.cn E-mail:jianqiang_he@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:姚宁,E-mail:yaoning@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51209176)、国家高技术研究发展计划(“863”计划)(2013AA102904)、高等学校学科创新引智计划(“111”计划)(B12007)、高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金(新教师类)(20120204120019)

Effects of Water Stress at Different Growth Stages on the Development and Yields of Winter Wheat in Arid Region

YAO Ning 1, 2, SONG Li-bing 1, 2, LIU Jian1, 2, FENG Hao 1, 2, 3, WU Shu-fang1, 2, HE Jian-qiang 1, 2   

  1. 1 College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
    2 Institute of Water-saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
    3 Institute of Water and Soil Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
  • Received:2014-11-12 Online:2015-06-16 Published:2015-06-16

摘要: 目的为了探究不同生长阶段水分胁迫对旱区冬小麦生长发育和产量形成的影响,通过2012—2013和2013—2014两个生长季在遮雨棚人工控水试验,对比分析不同分段受旱条件下冬小麦的株高、叶面积指数、生物量、物候期和产量等生理生态指标的动态变化过程。方法试验将冬小麦整个生育期划分为越冬、返青、拔节、抽穗和灌浆5个主要生长阶段,每相邻两个生长阶段连续受旱,形成4个不同的受旱时段水平(D1—D4),根据小麦生育期的需水量,设置灌水定额分别为40和80 mm两个水平(I1和I2),共形成8个处理,每处理3次重复,在遮雨棚内采用裂区试验布置,此外在旁边设置1个各生育期全灌水的对照处理。结果在冬小麦营养生长阶段进行连续水分胁迫时,明显影响小麦的正常生长发育,越冬期和返青期受旱时冬小麦的株高和叶面积指数都最小,但是拔节后受旱对小麦植株生长影响不明显,且拔节期后冬小麦株高和叶面指数的平均生长速率均为拔节前的10倍;拔节期前各处理小麦的生物量都没有明显的差异,但是拔节后各处理差异明显,越冬期和返青期受旱处理的生物量明显低于其他各处理,并且后期复水也不能弥补生物量的严重损失;干旱胁迫能缩短冬小麦的生育期,在同一灌溉水平下,受旱阶段D1、D2、D3、D4的抽穗期和开花期比对照处理延迟1-3 d,且受旱时期越早、胁迫程度越大,则生育期越提前,成熟期最多可提前5 d;相同灌溉水平下,若抽穗和灌浆期受旱(即越冬、返青、拔节期灌水)可获得较高的有效穗数和穗粒数,但千粒重较低;而抽穗和灌浆期灌水,可以提高冬小麦千粒重,但穗数和穗粒数较低;在I1和I2水平下,越冬期和返青期受旱处理的产量最低,仅为对照处理产量的42%左右,但I1水平下拔节期和抽穗期受旱的处理产量最高,约为对照处理的63%,I2水平下返青期和拔节期受旱的处理产量最高,约为对照处理的75%。结论灌水定额和受旱阶段具有明显的交互作用,返青期和灌浆期为旱区冬小麦田间水分管理的关键时期,生产中需加强这两个生长阶段的田间水分管理以确保高产。

关键词: 冬小麦, 水分胁迫, 生长阶段, 物候期, 生物量, 产量

Abstract: 【Objective】 To investigate the influences of water stress at different growth stages on the growth and yields of winter wheat, field experiments were conducted under a rainout shelter during two seasons of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. The dynamic changes of several eco-physical characteristics of wheat growth were measured and compared, including height, leaf area index, phenology, biomass, and yield. 【Method】 The whole growth season of wheat was divided into five growing stages (wintering, greening, jointing, heading, and grain filling). Water stress occurred at two continuous stages, while irrigations were applied at other stages, which resulted in four different levels of stress period (D1-D4). Two irrigation levels of 40 mm (I1) and 80 mm (I2) were applied. A total of eight treatments, with three replicates for each, followed a split-plot experiment design. An extra control treatment with irrigation at all five stages was arranged beside.【Result】The results showed that normal growth and development of wheat could be obviously influenced by continuous water stress given at vegetative stages. The height, LAI and biomass were the worst for all treatments, when water stress occurred at the stages of wintering and greening. However, the negative influences on wheat growth were not notable when water stress occurred after jointing stage. The average growth rate of height and LAI after jointing was about ten times as that before jointing. There were no notable differences of biomass between all of the treatments until the jointing stage. The biomass values of treatments with water stresses at wintering and greening stages were remarkably lower than other treatments. The irrigation later could not recover these serious biomass losses. Water stress could shorten the whole growth season of wheat, with a maximal 5-day advancing of maturation. At the same irrigation level, the heading and flowering stages could be delayed for 1-3 days for different levels of stress period. For the same irrigation level, relatively higher numbers of productive ears and seeds per ear could be obtained when water stress occurred at the heading and grain filling stages, but with a lower thousand-kernel weight. On the contrary, a relatively higher thousand-kernel weight could be achieved when irrigation was applied at the heading and grain filling stages, but with lower numbers of productive ears and seeds per ear. For irrigation levels of I1 and I2, yields were the lowest when water stress occurred at wintering and greening stages, which was only 42% of the control treatment. However, the treatments with the highest yield were different for different irrigation levels. For I1, it was the treatment with water stress at jointing and heading stages that had the highest yield, or about 63% of the control treatment. For I2, it was the treatment with water stress at greening and jointing stages, which had a yield of about 75% of the control treatment. 【Conclusion】There was a clear interaction between the intensity and occurring stage of water stress. In general, the greening and filling stages were the critical periods of water demand for winter wheat. Reasonable irrigation managements are needed at these two growth stages to guarantee a higher yield of winter wheat in arid region.

Key words: winter wheat, water stress, growth stage, phenology, biomass, yield

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