中国农业科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (8): 1506-1517.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.08.05

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

砂姜黑土小麦根系性状与冠层光合对不同灌水方式的响应

张向前,曹承富,乔玉强,李玮,陈欢   

  1. 安徽省农业科学院作物研究所/安徽省农作物品质改良重点实验室,合肥 230031
  • 收稿日期:2014-07-22 出版日期:2015-04-16 发布日期:2015-04-16
  • 通讯作者: 曹承富,Tel:0551-65160909;E-mail:caocfu@126.com E-mail:caocfu@126.com
  • 作者简介:张向前,Tel:0551-65160909;E-mail:xiangqian111@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划(2013BAD07B08,2012BAD04B09,2011BAD16B06)、安徽省农业科学院院长青年创新基金(14B0202)

Response of Wheat Root Characteristics and Canopy Photosynthesis to Different Irrigation Methods in Lime Concretion Black Soil

ZHANG Xiang-qian, CAO Cheng-fu, QIAO Yu-qiang, LI Wei, CHEN Huan   

  1. Crops Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Crops Quality Improvement, Hefei 230031
  • Received:2014-07-22 Online:2015-04-16 Published:2015-04-16

摘要: 目的】明确小麦前期不同灌水方式对中后期根系性状、冠层光合及产量影响的潜在机理,揭示小麦根系性状与冠层光合间的关系。【方法】在人工玻璃防雨蓬下,设置以下10种灌水处理CK(生育前期水分充足)、W120d (苗后20 d灌水50 mm)、W240d (苗后40 d灌水50 mm)、W360d (苗后60 d灌水50 mm)、W480d (苗后80 d灌水50 mm)、W5100d (苗后100 d灌水50 mm)、W6120d (苗后120 d灌水50 mm)、W720d+60d (苗后20 d灌水25 mm+苗后60 d灌水25 mm)、W840d+80d (苗后40 d灌水25 mm + 苗后80 d灌水25 mm)和W960d+100d(苗后60 d灌水25 mm + 苗后100 d灌水25 mm)。研究前期不同灌水方式对小麦中后期根系性状、冠层单叶面积、叶绿素密度、光合速率、光合有效辐射、叶绿素荧光参数和产量的影响。【结果】小麦生育前期适当延迟灌水日期有利于增加总根长、总表面积、总体积、平均直径、总根尖数和总分叉数,其中W5100d与CK间的差异不显著,但两者显著高于W120d和W6120d。CK孕穗期和开花期的倒1、倒2和倒3叶的单叶面积最大,但与W5100d差异不显著,且总灌水量相同下灌水次数对冠层单叶面积的影响不显著。生育前期灌1水下冠层叶绿素密度随灌水日期的推迟呈先增加后下降的趋势,并以W5100d最高,W120d最低。W5100d孕穗期、开花期和灌浆中期的冠层光合速率显著高于CK,分别增加了7.5%、8.9% 和 8.9%,但冠层光合速率受灌水次数影响不明显。灌1水下,W5100d孕穗期、开花期和灌浆中期的冠层光合有效辐射最高,分别比W120d和W6120d显著增加了18.7%、9.7%、11.0% 和5.7%、4.9%、4.3%。W5100d孕穗期和开花期的叶绿素荧光参数FoFmFv/FmΦpsIIETR值最高,灌水次数对叶绿素荧光参数的影响不显著。W5100d的产量和收获指数与CK差异不显著,两指标分别比W120d和W6120d显著增加了15.4%、22.1% 和3.2%、9.2%。【结论】生育前期过早和过晚灌水对小麦中后期根系生长、冠层光能利用及产量形成不利,适当延长前期灌水日期可获得优于或相当于小麦生育前期水分充足处理的根系性状、冠层光合及产量,灌水次数在灌水量相同下的效果不明显。

关键词: 普通小麦, 根系性状, 叶绿素密度, 光合能力, 光合有效辐射, 叶绿素荧光

Abstract: 【Objective】The aim of this experiment was to clarify the potential mechanism of the effects of different irrigation methods which was irrigated at early growth stage of wheat on root characteristics, canopy photosynthesis and yield at middle and late growth stages, and to reveal the relationship between root characteristics and canopy photosynthesis. 【Method】 The experiment was conducted in an artificial glass rainproof shed, and the designed ten irrigation treatments in this experiment were CK(adequate water was supplied at early growth stage), W120d (20 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W240d (40 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W360d (60 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W480d (80 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W5100d (100 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W6120d (120 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W720d+60d (20 d after seedling emerged for 25 mm+60 d after seedling emergency 25 mm), W840d+80d (40 d after seedling emerged for 25 mm+80 d after seedling emerged for 25 mm) and W960d+100d (60 d after seedling emerged for 25 mm+100 d after seedling emerged for 25 mm). The effects of different irrigation methods which were irrigated at wheat early growth stage on root characteristics, canopy single leaf area, chlorophyll density, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and yield of wheat at middle and late growth stages were studied. 【Result】 To appropriate postpone the irrigation date at wheat early growth stage could help to increase total root length, total surface area, total volume, average diameter, total root tips and total root forks, and the difference between W5100d (irrigation was carried out 100 d after seedling emergence) and CK (adequate water was supplied at early growth stage) was insignificant, but they were significantly higher than that of W120d (irrigation was carried out 20 d after seedling emergence) and W6120d (irrigation was carried out 120 d after seedling emergence). The single leaf area of 1, 2 and 3 leaves counted from the top of CK was the highest at booting and flowering stages, but the difference between CK and W5100d was not significant, and the canopy of single leaf area was not significantly affected by irrigation times under the same irrigation amount. When one time of irrigation was made at early growth stage of wheat, the canopy chlorophyll density had a change trend of initial increase and then decrease with the postponement of irrigation date, and the values of W5100d were the highest, while of W120d were the lowest. The canopy photosynthetic rate of W5100d at booting stage, flowering stage and middle of filling stage was significantly higher than that of CK, and was increased by 7.5%, 8.9% and 8.9%, respectively, but the canopy photosynthetic rate was not significantly affected by irrigation times. Under the condition of one time of irrigation, W5100d had the highest values of canopy photosynthetically active radiation at booting stage, flowering stage and middle of filling stage, and when compared to W120d and W6120d , the values were significantly increased by 18.7%, 9.7%, 11.0% and 5.7%, 4.9%, 4.3%, respectively. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm, ΦpsII and ETR of W5100d at booting and flowering stages were the highest, and the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were not significantly affected by irrigation times. The differences in yield and harvest index between W5100d and CK were not significant, and when compared to W120d and W6120d they were increased by 15.4%, 22.1% and 3.2%, 9.2%, respectively.【Conclusion】Too early or too late irrigation at early growth stage had adverse impact on root growth, canopy light utilization and yield formation, while the irrigation date was appropriately postponed, the root characteristics, canopy photosynthesis and yield were better than or equivalent to the treatment of adequate water supply at wheat early growth stage, and the effects of irrigation times were not obvious under the same amount of irrigation water.

Key words: common wheat, root characteristics, chlorophyll density, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll fluorescence

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