中国农业科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (6): 1063-1073.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.06.03

• 耕作栽培·生理生化 • 上一篇    下一篇

稻茬小麦不同氮效率群体花后物质生产与衰老特性差异分析

丁锦峰1,2,成亚梅1,黄正金1,李春燕1,2,郭文善1,2,朱新开1,2   

  1. 1扬州大学农学院/江苏省作物遗传生理国家重点实验室培育点/粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心,江苏扬州 225009
    2扬州大学小麦研究中心,江苏扬州 225009
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-25 出版日期:2015-03-16 发布日期:2015-03-16
  • 通讯作者: 朱新开,Tel:0514-87979300;E-mail:xkzhu@yzu.edu.cn E-mail:xkzhu@yzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:丁锦峰,Tel:0514-87979300;E-mail:jfdin@yzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(30971729,31271642,31401317)、国家科技支撑计划(2013BAD07B09)、江苏省高校自然科学基金重大项目(13KJA210004)、江苏省农业三新工程、江苏高校优势学科建设工程、江苏高校优秀科技创新团队和扬州大学高层次人才科研启动基金

Difference Analysis of Post-Anthesis Matter Production and Senescence Characteristics Among Different Nitrogen Efficiency Populations in Wheat Following Rice

DING Jin-feng1,2, CHENG Ya-mei1, HUANG Zheng-jin1, LI Chun-yan1,2, GUO Wen-shan1,2, ZHU Xin-kai1,2   

  1. 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu
    2Wheat Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu
  • Received:2014-04-25 Online:2015-03-16 Published:2015-03-16

摘要:

【目的】探讨稻茬小麦高氮肥利用率条件下群体花后衰老特征。【方法】2010—2012年,在稻麦两熟制条件下,以扬麦20为材料,采用三因素裂区设计,以施氮量(纯N)为主区,设210.0 kg·hm-2、262.5 kg·hm-2两个水平;以施氮比例为副区,设基肥﹕壮蘖肥﹕拔节肥﹕穗肥分别为3﹕1﹕3﹕3、5﹕1﹕2﹕2两个水平;以穗肥追氮时期为裂区,设剑叶露尖、孕穗期、抽穗期和开花期四个水平。通过试验构建不同氮肥利用率(NUR)群体,研究其产量、物质生产、氮素吸收及花后剑叶衰老特性的变化特征。【结果】不同群体NUR变幅在31.18%—72.23%,NUR≥60%群体(氮高效群体)籽粒产量8 500 kg·hm-2以上,比NUR40%—60%群体(氮中效群体)和NUR≤40%群体(氮低效群体)籽粒产量分别高6.84%和21.36%,群体间差异均达显著水平。NUR与籽粒产量呈极显著线性正相关。不同群体间花前干物质积累量和氮素积累量差异未达显著水平。但随NUR增高,花后及总的干物质积累量、开花期植株氮素含量和成熟期群体氮素积累量增加,NUR≥60%群体花后和总的干物质积累量分别达6 000和17 500 kg·hm-2以上,开花期植株氮素含量和成熟期群体氮素积累量分别达1.50%和215 kg·hm-2以上。此外,随NUR的提高,花后群体光合面积衰减逐渐减缓,净同化率逐渐增加;植株花后剑叶光合能力和抗衰老能力逐步增强,在籽粒灌浆后期表现更为明显,促进了花后光合物质生产。NUR≥60%群体花后叶面积衰减率、光合势和净同化率分别在0.14 LAI·d-1、105×104 m2·d·hm-2和9.50 g·m-2·d-1左右。综合两年结果,在氮肥适当后移(3﹕1﹕3﹕3)条件下,穗肥适当早施(剑叶露尖、孕穗期),产量及氮肥利用率较高;高施氮量(262.5 kg·hm-2)的增产效果不明显,且氮肥利用效率较低。在施氮量210.0 kg·hm-2、氮肥运筹3﹕1﹕3﹕3、剑叶露尖追氮处理下两年产量均高于9 000 kg·hm-2,氮肥利用率为各处理最高。【结论】稻茬小麦高氮肥利用率条件下群体在生育中后期具有较高植株氮素营养水平,氮素吸收与积累增加,有利于促进氮素向籽粒的运转;有利于延缓花后光合面积衰减及叶片衰老、增强光合物质生产能力,实现氮肥利用率与籽粒产量的同步提升。

关键词: 稻茬小麦, 氮效率, 物质生产, 衰老

Abstract: 【Objective】This study investigated the post-anthesis characteristics of wheat population in rice-wheat rotation system under high nitrogen utilization efficiency condition. 【Method】 From 2010 to 2012, using wheat variety Yangmai 20 as material, the field experiments were conducted as split-plot design which included 16 combinations of two applications of nitrogen amount (210.0 kg·hm-2 and 262.5 kg·hm-2), two nitrogen applied ratios of basis﹕tillering﹕elongation﹕booting (3﹕1﹕3﹕3 and 5﹕1﹕2﹕2), and four nitrogen topdressing stages (flag leaf stage, booting stage, heading stage and anthesis). In the rice-wheat rotation system, wheat populations at different nitrogen utilization rate (NUR) levels were established by agronomic management. The differences of grain yield, matter production, nitrogen absorption, and flag leaves senescence characteristics after anthesis among different NUR level populations were analyzed, respectively.【Result】The range of NUR in different populations was 31.18%-72.23%. Grain yield of NUR≥60% population (NUR-H) was more than 8 500 kg·hm-2, which was 6.84% higher than NUR 40%-60% population (NUR-M) and was 21.6% higher than NUR≤40% population (NUR-L). There were significant differences among the three populations. NUR was significantly positively correlated with grain yield. And different NUR populations were not distinct in dry matter accumulation amount and nitrogen accumulation amount before the stage of anthesis. With NUR improvement, dry matter accumulation amount after anthesis and at maturity, plant nitrogen content at anthesis, and population nitrogen accumulation amount at maturity increased, which were more than 6 000 kg·hm-2, 17 500 kg·hm-2, 1.50% and 215 kg·hm-2 in NUR≥60% population, respectively. Moreover, along with NUR increasement, decay of population photosynthetic area after anthesis gradually postponed, and net assimilation further increased, as well as flag leaves photosynthetic capacity and anti-oxidant ability after anthesis enhanced, which more obviously performed during the middle and late phase of grain filling. Therefore, photosynthetic material production capacity after anthesis was improved. Decay of leaf area, photosynthetic potential and net assimilation after anthesis in NUR≥60% population was about 0.14 LAI·d-1, 105×104 m2·d·hm-2 and 9.50 g·m-2·d-1, respectively. In summary, grain yield and NUR were relatively high in the treatment of early topdressing panicle fertilizer (flag leaf stage or booting stage) under the condition of appropriate postponing nitrogen application (nitrogen applied ratios= 3﹕1﹕3﹕3). Rather, yield improvement of high nitrogen application (262.5 kg·hm-2) was not obvious, and NUR even was quite low. The grain yield was more than 9 000 kg·hm-2 in experiments carried in two years, and NUR was the highest under the treatment of applied nitrogen amount 210.0 kg·hm-2, nitrogen applied ratios of basis﹕tillering﹕elongation﹕booting= 3﹕1﹕3﹕3 and topdressed nitrogen at flag leaf stage.【Conclusion】Under high nitrogen utilization efficiency condition, plant nitrogen nutrition level was high during the middle and late phases of plant growth and development, nitrogen absorption and accumulation amount increased in wheat following rice, which was better to improve transportation of nitrogen to grain. Additionally, the process of photosynthetic area decay and leaves senescence was postponed during the late phase, and photosynthetic material production capacity was improved, which could be the reason of simultaneous improvement in NUR and grain yield.

Key words: wheat following rice, nitrogen efficiency, matter production, senescence

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